Allah Says in the Glorious Quran:
The Conquest of Makkah, according to many scholars, took place in 8th Year of Hijri, during the month of Ramadan (approx. December 629 or January 630 CE).
In the month of Dhul Qadah 6th Hijri (628 CE), the Quraish of Makkah and the Muslim of Medinah signed a ten-year truce called the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah (Sulah Hudaybiayah).
Despite the improved relations between Makkah and Madinah after the signing of the Treaty of Al Hudaybiyah, the peace was broken by Quraish of Makkah, with their allies the tribe of Bani Bakr, and attacked the tribe of Khuzaah. Khuzaah were allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet (S.A.W.) heard of the attack, he (S.A.W.) immediately ordered his companions to prepare for war.
Muslims started their Journey to Makkah and Prophet’s (S.A.W) Breaking of Fast:
On the 10th of Ramadan, 8 AH, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), alongwith his 10,000 companions, which was the largest Muslim force ever assembled as of that time, went on their journey to Makkah. In this context, Al Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (R.A.) that:
Abu Sufyan Embraces Islam:
Hisham’s father, according to Al-Bukhari, narrated that:
When Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) set out (towards Makkah) during the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) and this news reached (the infidels of Quraish), Abu Sufyan, Hakim bin Hizam and Budail bin Warqa came out to gather information about Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.). They proceeded on their way till they reached a place called ‘Marr-Az-Zahran’ (which is near Makkah). Behold! There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of Arafat.
Some of the guards of Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) saw them and took them over, caught them and brought them to Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.). Abu Sufyan embraced Islam.
So Al-Abbas (R.A.) kept him standing (at that place) and the tribes with the Prophet (S.A.W.) started passing in front of Abu Sufyan in military batches.
Then (a batch of the tribes of) Juhaina, tribe of Saad bin Huzaim and Banu Sulaim passed by and Abu Sufyan said similarly as above.
Then came another batch (of warriors) which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there was Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) and his companions and the flag of the Prophet (S.A.W.) was carried by Az-Zubair bin Al Awwam.
Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun (place north of the Great Mosque).
Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) ordered Khalid bin Al-Walid to enter Makkah from its upper part from Kada while the Prophet (S.A.W.) himself entered from Kuda (hill in Makkah). Two men from the cavalry of Khalid bin Al-Walid named Hubaish bin Al-Ashar and Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on that day.
(Sahih Bukhari: 4280)
Prophet’s (S.A.W.) Instruction to his Army:
Muslims had been ordered by the Prophet (S.A.W.) not to cause any harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering Makkah. The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) had instructed his Commanders they entered Makkah, only to fight those who resisted them, except a four men and two women who were to be killed even if they found beneath the curtains of the Kaabah. Among them were Abdullah Ibn Saad Ibn Abi Sarh, Abdullah Ibn Khadl and Al-Huwairth Ibn Naqid.
Peaceful entry of Muslim Army into Makkah:
There were four entry routes to Makkah through passes in the hills. These were from the north-west, the south-west, the south, and the north-east. Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) divided the Muslim army into four groups, one to advance through each pass.
The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) entered Makkah on his favorite camel Al-Kaswa, having Usama Ibn Zaid (R.A.) sitting behind him. On his way he recited Surah Al-Fatha (48th Surah of Quran).
Aishah (R.A.) said:
Narrated Abdullah bin Mughaffal (R.A.), who said:
The Muslim army entered Makkah on Monday, 18th Ramadan, 8th Hijrah. The entry was peaceful and bloodless entry on three routes to Makkah except for that of group of Muslim Army commanded by Khalid ibn Al-Walid (R.A.). The rigid anti-Muslims like Ikrimah and Sufwan gathered fighters from infields of Quraish and faced Khalid’s group of Muslim Army. The Quraish attacked the Muslims with swords and bows and the Muslims charged the Quraish’s positions. However, after a short battle, the Quraish gave ground after losing twelve men. Muslim losses were two warriors.
Prophet (S.A.W.) entered Kaabah:
Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar (R.A.), who said:
‘The Prophet (S.A.W.) arrived (at Makkah) in the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) while Usama was riding behind him on (his she-camel). Al-Qaswa, Bilal and Uthman bin Talha were accompanying him. When he made his she-camel kneel down near the Kaaba, he said to Uthman,
He brought the key to him and opened the gate (of the Kaaba), for him. The Prophet, Usama, Bilal and Uthman (bin Talha) entered the Kaaba and then closed the gate behind them (from inside). The Prophet (S.A.W.) stayed there for a long period and then came out. The people rushed to get in, but I (Ibn Umar) went in before them and found Bilal standing behind the gate, and I said to him,
The Kaaba was built on six pillars, arranged in two rows, and he prayed between the two pillars of the front row leaving the gate of the Kaaba at his back and facing (in prayer) the wall which faces one when one enters the Kaaba. Between him and that wall (was the distance of about three cubits). But I forgot to ask Bilal about the number of rakaat the Prophet (S.A.W.) had prayed. There was a red piece of marble at the place where he (i.e. the Prophet) had offered the prayer.
(Sahih Bukhari: 4400)
Narrated by Mujahid, who said, Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) got up on the day of the Conquest of Makkah and said,
Prophet (S.A.W.) Broke Idols in Kaabah:
There were 360 idols inside the Kaaba representing the different pagan Arab gods. Pictures of the Prophet Abrahim (A.S.) and his son Prophet Ismail (A.S.) and of angels were posted on the walls of Kaaba. The Prophet (S.A.W) after obliterating these pictures broke all idols. The idol of Hubal the so-called god of Makkah could not be broken by the Prophet (S.A.W) or Ali ibn Talib (R.A) as it was fixed at a high place. The Prophet (S.A.W) made Ali (R.A.) stand on his shoulders to break it. Not one person from the whole of Makkah came forward to stop Mohammad (S.A.W) from breaking their gods.
Narrated by Abdullah (R.A.), who said:
Abu Sufiyan was forgiven:
On the day of Conquest of Makkah, even Abu Sufiyan, who was sure than he will not be forgiven, was forgiven by the Prophet (S.A.W).
Prophet (S.A.W.) asked Abu Sufian why he embraced Islam?
Abu Sufiyan replied that the gods of Makkah had proved powerless and that there was indeed “no god but Allah” (First pillar of Islam).
Because Abu Sufyan was the present chief of Quraish and has become Muslim, Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) declared Abu Sufyan’s house a sanctuary and said:
After dealing with Abu Sufiyan, Prophet (S.A.W.) said to the people of Makkah:
After their reply, Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) declared:
(Ref: Ibn Kathir and Ibn Al-Hajjaj Muslim)
After declaring a general amnesty, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) went up the Safa Hill and accepted the allegiance of the Quraish. Many years ago, he had declared his Prophet-hood there but he was rejected then. Now, he was accepting the allegiance to Islam from the same people on the same hill.
Prophet’s (S.A.W.) stay in Makkah and His Journey Prayer:
Many scholars of agreed that the Prophet (S.A.W.), after conquest of Makkah, stayed the remaining days of Ramadan in Makkah shortening the Prayers and not fasting.
In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated that Anas (R.A.) said,
The Conquest of Makkah is the most significant event in Islamic History. With this conquest, both the inside of Makkah and the places around it were cleaned of idols; the hearts of the Quraish were also cleaned of polytheism and became spotless with the light of oneness of Allah.
IslamicFinder. (2021, August 28). Details about Conquest of Mecca. Retrieved from https://www.islamicfinder.org/knowledge/islam-and-sunnah/conquest-of-makkah/